1945 - II. World War II: USSR troops took Budapest back from the Nazis. The British royal air force began bombing the city of Dresden in Nazi Germany.

II. World War II is the second of the two world wars in the 20th century, and is a global military conflict with the majority of the nations of the world that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the USA, the Republic of China and France, all the great powers of the war era; As Allied States, Germany, Italy and Japan; Joined as Axis States. The war, involving more than 100 million military personnel, is the largest in world history. The key participants of the war used all their economic, industrial and scientific powers for this war, regardless of their differences in civil or military resources. It was the only war in which nuclear weapons were used and mass civilian deaths such as the Holocaust were carried out. World War is the bloodiest war in human history. 40-50 million people died during the war. [1]

Generally, September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland, was accepted as the date when the war started. With the invasion of Poland, France and the British Empire and most countries included in the Commonwealth of Nations declared war on Germany. Germany aimed to establish a large empire in Europe. Germany seized or suppressed most of the European territory through a series of battles and treaties from the end of 1939 to the beginning of 1941. While the German-Soviet Treaty was pending, the so-called neutral Soviet Union either completely or partially occupied or added land to its 6 neighboring countries. Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations remained the only major force to wage war against the Axis Powers in North Africa and the expanding naval wars. In June 1941, the European Axis Powers began to occupy the Soviet Union. Starting the biggest ground war front in history, this post-occupation Axis Powers devoted a significant portion of its military power to this war. In December 1941, Japan, which has been fighting China and trying to rule Asia since 1937, attacked the United States and the territory of European states in the Pacific Ocean and soon dominated most of the region.

The progress of the Axis Powers was halted in 1942, with a series of defeats on the Pacific Front of Japan and defeats of the European Axis armies in North Africa and Stalingrad. With German defeats in Eastern Europe in 1943, the occupation of Italy by the Allied Forces and American victories in the Pacific, the Axis Powers lost control in the war and had to retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Alliance Forces invaded France, the Soviet Union took back lost territories and occupied Germany and its allies.

The war ended in Europe with the unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, following the Soviet Union and Polish forces taking over Berlin. Japanese armies were defeated by the United States. Following this, the Japanese Islands were occupied. The war in Asia ended on August 15, 1945, when Japan agreed to surrender. If Although Turkey entered the war as the official German and friendship pacts made with the US and economic relations during the Second World War that have worked in the US and Germany, it was damaged heavily to power in this way in Asia.

The war resulted in the Allied States' absolute victory over Germany and Japan in 1945. The Second World War deeply affected the political order and social structure of the world. United Nations (UN) was established to prevent conflicts that may occur in the following years and to ensure international solidarity. It emerged as superpowers like the United States and the Soviet Union after the war. This started a Cold War era that would last for 46 years among the superpowers. During this period, the influence of the European great powers began to diminish, and the colonies in Asia and Africa began to gain their independence. Many countries, whose industry was damaged during the war, entered a period of restructuring their economies. Political integration has gained importance, especially in Europe, to regulate post-war relations.